A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no officially recognised system, however, until the adoption of the "OLO" ofizjel lezebuurjer ortografi on 5 June The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography e. Similarly, new principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords.
This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were already familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. The orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch , provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are usually preserved:. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n -deletion in certain contexts.
For example:. The consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. Luxembourgish has three genders masculine, feminine, and neuter , and three cases nominative, accusative, and dative. These are marked morphologically on determiners and pronouns. As in German, there is no morphological gender distinction in the plural.
Moreover, they are used before numbers to express an estimation: eng Rare examples of the genitive are also found: Enn des Mounts "end of the month" , Ufanks der Woch "at the beginning of the week". The functions of the genitive are normally expressed using a combination of the dative and a possessive determiner: e. This is known as a periphrastic genitive , and is a phenomenon also commonly seen in dialectal and colloquial German, and in Dutch.
The forms of the personal pronouns are given in the following table unstressed forms appear in parentheses :.
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The 2pl form is also used as a polite singular like French vous , see T-V distinction ; the forms are capitalised in writing:. Like most varieties of colloquial German, but even more invariably, Luxembourgish uses definite articles with personal names. They are obligatory and not to be translated:. A feature Luxembourgish shares with only some western dialects of German is that women and girls are most often referred to with forms of the neuter pronoun hatt :. Luxembourgish morphology distinguishes two types of adjective: attributive and predicative.
Predicative adjectives appear with verbs like sinn "to be" , and receive no extra ending:. Attributive adjectives are placed before the noun they describe, and change their ending according to the grammatical gender, number, and case:. The comparative in Luxembourgish is formed analytically, i. The superlative involves a synthetic form consisting of the adjective and the suffix -st : e. Attributive modification requires the emphatic definite article and the inflected superlative adjective:.
Several other adjectives also have comparative forms. However, these are not commonly used as normal comparatives, but in special senses:. Luxembourgish exhibits "verb second" word order in clauses. In other words, we find the following finite clausal structures:. These rules interact so that in subordinate clauses, the finite verb and any non-finite verbs must all cluster at the end. Luxembourgish allows different word orders in these cases:. Luxembourgish like Dutch and German allows prepositional phrases to appear after the verb cluster in subordinate clauses:.
Luxembourgish has borrowed many French words. For example, the word for a bus driver is Buschauffeur as in Dutch and Swiss German , which would be Busfahrer in German and chauffeur de bus in French. Some words are different from Standard German, but have equivalents in German dialects. An example is Gromperen potatoes — German: Kartoffeln. That did not happen.
Battle of St. Vith | Military Wiki | Fandom
Pressing eastward as the Bulge was flattened, Patton passed through the Belgian town of Houffalize, above Bastogne. He was appalled by its utter destruction as the Germans withdrew after mutually costly fighting. Giving in to his profane streak, yet still close enough to Christmas to exploit a carol, he penned yet another verse:. O little town of Houffalize, How still we see thee lie; Above thy steep and battered streets The aeroplanes still fly. Yet in thy dark streets shineth Not any Goddamned light; The hopes and fears of all thy years Were blown to hell last night.
Still, he seemed never lost for language that would plunge him into trouble. If we kick them out, all this bunch, we will retard the reorganization of Bavaria…. It was not the first of his unwelcome postwar remarks, and the sum of them cost him his military governorship. Patton had an outsized genius for war, but not for peace.
Transferred by Eisenhower to a paper-pushing post until he could return to the States, Patton got no farther than the American military hospital in Heidelberg. Critically injured in a staff car collision with an army truck on December 9, , he did not see another Christmas. Patton died on December 21, , and was buried in a cemetery in Luxembourg for Americans who died in the Bulge, six thousand of them from his beloved Third Army. It was Christmas Eve. For more great articles, subscribe to MHQ magazine today! Ever since the Germans launched an offensive in the Ardennes region of eastern Belgium and northern Luxembourg on December 16, , the artillerymen — and all the makings of their Christmas dinner — had been on the move.
The day of the 19th had seen them firing in support of American defenders at various displacements around the Luxembourgian town of Wiltz. Just before sunset, however, they had run dangerously low on ammunition and were forced to retreat. Max Billingsley, and his executive officer decided to head into Bastogne, about 10 miles to the west, just over the Belgian border, to learn more about the situation.
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When it was ready, the exhausted men formed a chow line and filed through. Down the road! Now, with the ammunition nearly depleted, the odds were even worse.
By putting up persistent resistance against powerful and numerically superior enemy forces, those ragtag bands of American soldiers gave General Dwight D. Eisenhower enough time to rush reinforcements to the Ardennes and blunt the enemy offensive. Without their efforts to slow the Wehrmacht juggernaut, the battle might have turned out much differently. He and the other soldiers around him grabbed their rifles and helmets and poured outside. They heard the popping and rattling sound of small-arms fire in the distance. Corporal Arch Jack, a survey section clerk, was lying in a ditch, peering up the road, thinking that some GI was probably just trigger-happy.
The intensity of the distant shooting grew, and the vehicle kept coming, right at the th. No one could quite tell whether the vehicle was American or German. It looked like an armored car. Could it be an American vehicle but with Germans inside? Why in the world did the driver have his headlights blazing in a war zone?
The gunner decided to take no chances. He opened fire at the approaching armored car and scored a direct hit. The vehicle turned into a ball of fire. Machine gunners added to the carnage. The vehicle, it turned out, held Americans. The M8 armored car was the point vehicle of a small retreating column of scout soldiers and 3rd Battalion, th Infantry, troops retreating from Wiltz.