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In the s, these more maximalist versions of participation became more dominant in planning and architecture theory. In his model of transactive planning, Friedmann emphasizes mutual learning through interpersonal dialogue, which positions participation as integral to the planning process. Pacione refers to the notion of popular planning, which implies planning by local communities in their own neighbourhoods. It involves the formulation of planning proposals and their implementation by local community organizations, and rests on close collaboration between the community and the local planning authority that agrees to adopt the popular plan as official policy.
Pacione — also describes in detail the impact of popular planning, in a redevelopment project in the Coin Street area of Waterloo in Central London, at the end of the s. After several years of inquiries, protests and demonstrations, and legal actions, the commercial developers sold the land to the Labour-controlled Greater London Council, which eventually cleared the way for the implementation of the popular plan for the area.
Also the earlier model of advocacy planning see Davidoff, continued to play a role.
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A decade later, Mazziotti , in particular, developed advocacy planning further, but even before this elaboration it remained an important component18 of what Pacione labelled the field of progressive planning policies. For instance, many aspects of advocacy planning As Smith remarks, the triumph of neo-liberalism since the s has impacted strongly on planning processes, including the role of the planner and the importance attached to participation.
Also, the willingness to invest in cities, for instance, decreased; Pacione mentions a 59 per cent reduction in federal spending on US cities between and Nevertheless, the very end of the s saw a rise in the communicative approach to planning e. Forester, ; Healey, , which again reserved an important role for participation. The communicative approach can be seen as a migration of the notion of deliberation into the field of planning, which is seen as an interactive and interpretative process.
In the s and s, this emphasis on participation was strengthened by a focus on the possibilities of Information and Communication Technologies ICTs to support participatory processes. Both access to information and opportunities to use various communication technologies are required to initiate and maintain critical discussions on the future of a city region, to create local identity and civic pride, and to enhance participation in and commitment to urban development.
Not surprisingly, critical authors have not only discussed the general lack of structural equality between North and South from both a historical-colonial and a present-day postcolonial perspective, they have also attacked the replication of this structural imbalance in development theory and practice. Thus, the introduction of and the emphasis on the notion of participation can be seen as a strategy to counter the reduced agency of developing countries and their populations, and to increase the focus on their empowerment.
At the same time, these articulations of participation are very much influenced by the interventionist nature of development theory and practice, which leads to the presence of a multi-layered concept of participation that, on the one hand is seen as the means a tool for better project outcomes , and on the other as the ends as enhancing societal equity, empowerment and social justice Oakley, ; Nelson and Wright, ; Cleaver, Servaes provides a general starting point in his discussion of the modernization and dependency approaches to development.
This paradigm does not exclude the notion of participation, but it assumes a minimalist form because it is focused on the creation of elites within the colonial framework and, later, on the political participation of citizens in homogeneous communities Hickey and Mohan, 6.
The second model Servaes 31—35 distinguishes is the dependency model, which originated as a critique of the modernist paradigm. This critique was at least partially organized at the international level, by the so-called Non-aligned Movement. Latin American scholars, such as Prebisch and Singer, in particular, but also scholars from the western Marxist tradition such as Baran, Frank and Sweezy , played a crucial role in the attempt to rearticulate development. Although economic characteristics are still seen as the main explanatory factors, the power of the centre is seen to be based on an always-specific combination of economic, political, military and cultural factors.
As Sweezy argues, this solution has to have a revolutionary nature: for the vast majority of the peoples of the periphery, dependent development yields not a better life and a brighter future but intensified exploitation and greater misery. The way forward for them is therefore through a revolutionary break with the entire capitalist system […] Sweezy, 80, quoted in Servaes, 34 As Grosfuegel argues, the Dependistas not only tackled the modernization paradigm, they also critiqued the orthodox Marxist positioning of the Latin American communist parties that had forged strategic alliances with the Latin American bourgeoisies.
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At the same time, the Dependistas continued to be locked into a Marxist-structuralist perspective, which led to a strong focus on the economy and the nation state, and to the underestimation of culture and ideology, but which also kept them firmly locked into the communist utopia as a sense-making tool. Dependency theory exerted a strong influence on several other authors who placed a more explicit emphasis on the notions of participation and empowerment. Apart from the authors working in the field of liberation theology see Gibellini, , particularly Freire and Fals-Borda see Mato, were prominent in what Hickey and Mohan Fals-Borda is strongly associated with the development approach called Participatory Action Research PAR , which relies on an empathic researcher to enable communities to define their own research questions, to lead the research and to develop their own solutions for change Mertens, — see Fals-Borda and Rahman, ; Kindon et al.
Freire contends that people passively accept this content and rarely question the validity of the knowledge Thomas, In his alternative pedagogy, Freire emphasizes the importance of both action and reflection, combined in the term conscientization. Conscientization still requires input from a tutor, so that arousing critical awareness is related to development and to the political struggle against injustice.
Participation in this context is seen as being the reduction in the power imbalances.
This is situated at two levels: the educational situation the relations between tutor, apprentice and knowledge , and the social, political and economic situation the relations between oppressor and repressed. This report considers previous approaches to development as reductionist and top-down, and more supportive of transnational capital than development and poverty reduction. It elaborates another development characterized by a diversity of approaches. Mefalopulos 51 mentions the multiplicity approach Servaes, , , the empowerment approach Friedmann, and the autonomous development approach Carmen, As Potter et al.
These debates on alternative forms of development and participation were translated into models for development practice in the late s and early s, giving rise to what has become known as the field of participation in development. Here, the emphasis shifted from the broader levels of participation in developing societies to participation in the setting of development projects, where it is aimed at empowering people, capturing the indigenous knowledge and ensuring the sustainability and efficiency of the interventions Hickey and Mohan, 7. One of the most influential models was and is Participatory Rural Appraisal PRA , developed mainly by Chambers , , a, b, — see also Mukherjee, ; Narayanasamy, In addition to an explicit emphasis on influence and control, in this document the World Bank introduces the distinction between participation on the one hand, and consultation and listening on the other.
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In an earlier publication World Bank, , the World Bank had outlined a four-level approach to participation: information sharing, consultation, collaboration and empowerment. In the Sourcebook, consultation is positioned differently, namely as a prerequisite for participation: Instead, we recognize consultation and listening as essential prerequisites for participation, because, no matter how good the sponsors and designers are at consultation and listening, what is still missing is learning on the part of the people in the local system.
World Bank, 4 — emphasis in original The Sourcebook articulates the participatory approach as a break with the past. The Sourcebook provides a series of examples of how this learning has improved the developmental process. These case studies use a series of methods characterized by a strong focus on stakeholder participation. A collection of these critiques is provided in the reader Participation: The new tyranny?
On a first level, the authors critique what they see as the hegemonization of participatory approaches in development, where participation risks becoming a grand narrative Kothari, and a means to its own end, at the expense of other techniques that might be more appropriate in specific circumstances. However, on a second level, the authors of this edited collection raise a number of conceptual issues. They critique how in participation in development approaches the concept community is articulated as homogeneous, static and harmonious see also Guijt and Shah, ; Mohan, ; Williams, Similarly, the role of the key concepts of learning and local knowledge is deconstructed since knowledge cannot be considered stable and original.
Also the construction of a North—South dichotomy, where both components become homogenized and a Manichean world-view is used, is deemed problematic Henkel and Stirrat, Kothari , for instance, points to the close connection between the production and representation of knowledge and power. This allows her to problematize the isolation of local knowledge from the processes that generate it, in both the interaction between development workers and local people, and the interaction within the community itself.
These power processes can work against the disempowered The celebration of community also results in the neglect of local power dynamics. At the same time, care should be taken not to abort the component of resistance in the Foucauldian framework. Disempowered people who are confronted with participatory development initiatives or rituals can still turn these initiatives to their advantage. Although the power dynamics in participation in development can lead to the de-politicization of development, these power processes also allow for its re-politicization Williams, Despite the sometimes assertive tone of debates on participation in development and its implementation, for instance, by the World Bank, there is a common concern over participation.
Through critiques of the mainstreaming of participation, these authors confirm its importance, although its practical realization is sometimes deemed problematic. The main model for this problematization is grounded in a critique against the reductionism that is embedded within the mainstream articulation of participation, which reduces the maximalist nature of participation. In an attempt to redress this situation, a number of authors have pleaded for a stronger emphasis on the notion of citizenship in relation to development, scaling up the participatory processes from the level of the development project cycle and imputing them into the realm of politics.
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Ironically, their contributions are aimed at the weak connection between participation and institutionalized politics, which is crucial even in minimalist approaches to participation. The broadening of the span of participation has resulted in a disconnection with institutionalized politics, which has reduced the multidirectional character of participation although in a slightly unusual way.
In order to discuss this migration of participation from the social back into the political sphere, Gaventa uses the term participatory citizenship.